Speech Therapists describe Speech and therefore speech difficulties as follows:

  • The ability to physically produce sounds (Articulation) e.g. a child can’t say the ‘r’ sound
  • The ability to produce sounds based on knowledge of sound rules and patterns (Phonology) e.g. a child can say the sound ‘r’ when asked but changes it to a ‘w’ when speaking (such as ‘rock’ becomes ‘wock’)
  • The ability to produce sounds fluently without stuttering.


 Speech Therapists  may provide intervention for the following Speech Difficulties:

Articulation Disorders

This might be a difficulty with pronunciation i.e. a child can’t say the sound t’ or can’t say lots of different sounds. This is an articulation disorder.

Phonological Disorders

This is where a child has difficulty with sound rules. For example, a child may be able to say the ‘ t’ sound when asked, but he/she then says the ‘k’ sound instead when speaking. This is a phonological disorder known as ‘backing’. That is the child is saying sounds at the back of the mouth that should be said at the front of the mouth.


This is a motor Speech disorder where the brain fails to coordinate plans for specific actions. There are two different types of Apraxia:

Oral Apraxia- a person has problems making voluntary movements of mouth muscles.

Verbal Apraxia- the person has problems with their ability to plan and program voluntary movements to say sounds and words.

Apraxia of Speech can be developmental (present from birth) or acquired.

To find out more, call us or book an assessment today.
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